Tools of Monetary Policy
- Open market operations
–Affect the quantity of reserves and the monetary base
- Changes in borrowed reserves
–Affect the monetary base
- Changes in reserve requirements
–Affect the money multiplier
- Federal funds rate: the interest rate on overnight loans of reserves from one bank to another
–Primary instrument of monetary policy
Demand in the Market for Reserves
- What happens to the quantity of reserves demanded by banks, holding everything else constant, as the federal funds rate changes?
- Excess reserves are insurance against deposit outflows
–The cost of holding these is the interest rate that could have been earned minus the interest rate that is paid on these reserves, ier
Demand in the Market for Reserves
- Since the fall of 2008 the Fed has paid interest on reserves at a level that is set at a fixed amount below the federal funds rate target.
- When the federal funds rate is above the rate paid on excess reserves, ier, as the federal funds rate decreases, the opportunity cost of holding excess reserves falls and the quantity of reserves demanded rises
- Downward sloping demand curve that becomes flat (infinitely elastic) at ier
Supply in the Market for Reserves
- Two components: non-borrowed and borrowed reserves
- Cost of borrowing from the Fed is the discount rate
- Borrowing from the Fed is a substitute for borrowing from other banks
- If iff < id, then banks will not borrow from the Fed and borrowed reserves are zero
- The supply curve will be vertical
- As iff rises above id, banks will borrow more and more at id, and re-lend at iff
- The supply curve is horizontal (perfectly elastic) at id
Affecting the Federal Funds Rate
- Effects of open an market operation depends on whether the supply curve initially intersects the demand curve in its downward sloped section versus its flat section.
- An open market purchase causes the federal funds rate to fall whereas an open market sale causes the federal funds rate to rise (when intersection occurs at the downward sloped section).
- Open market operations have no effect on the federal funds rate when intersection occurs at the flat section of the demand curve.
- If the intersection of supply and demand occurs on the vertical section of the supply curve, a change in the discount rate will have no effect on the federal funds rate.
- If the intersection of supply and demand occurs on the horizontal section of the supply curve, a change in the discount rate shifts that portion of the supply curve and the federal funds rate may either rise or fall depending on the change in the discount rate
- When the Fed raises reserve requirement, the federal funds rate rises and when the Fed decreases reserve requirement, the federal funds rate falls.
Open Market Operations
- Dynamic open market operations
- Defensive open market operations
- Primary dealers
- TRAPS (Trading Room Automated Processing System)
- Repurchase agreements
- Matched sale-purchase agreements
- The Fed has complete control over the volume
- Flexible and precise
- Easily reversed
- Quickly implemented
- Discount window
- Primary credit: standing lending facility
- Secondary credit
- Seasonal credit
- Lender of last resort to prevent financial panics
–Creates moral hazard problem
Advantages and Disadvantages of Discount Policy
- Used to perform role of lender of last resort
–Important during the subprime financial crisis of 2007-2008.
- Cannot be controlled by the Fed; the decision maker is the bank
- Discount facility is used as a backup facility to prevent the federal funds rate from rising too far above the target
- Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 sets the
reserve requirement the same for all depository institutions
- 3% of the first $48.3 million of checkable deposits; 10% of checkable deposits over $48.3 million
- The Fed can vary the 10% requirement between 8% to 14%
- No longer binding for most banks
- Can cause liquidity problems
- Increases uncertainty for banks
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